Ismael (as) grew up with Jurham tribe, and he adopted the language. He learned the Arabic language because Ibrahim (as) is from Iraq and his language was Aramaic so they used to speak a different language in Iraq at the time. Ismael(as) was brought up by the Jurham tribe and married a woman from among them. This is the beginning of the lineage of Rasul’Allah (saw), through Ismael (as) in Mecca.
Jurhum had the political leadership in Mecca. Later on Ismael (as) grew up and his father Ibrahim (as) came and together they built Al-Kaaba. The religious leadership in Mecca remained with Ismail (as), and it continued along the line of his descendants. Jurhum never had the religious authority over Kaaba, it was always in the hands of the descendants of Ismael (as) but the political leadership was with Jurhum. Jurham stayed in Mecca for a very long time, for two thousand years. They became corrupt, tyrannical, Allah (swt) sent on them Khuza’ah, the Arab tribe Khuza’ah came into the scene and kick them out of Mecca. It is another tribe that came from Yemen and settled in the Hijaz. They went in and invaded Mecca and they expelled Jurhum out.
Before Jurham left they did two things
1. Jurham dumped the well of Zamzam, they filled it up and they erased all of it’s marks.
2. They stole the treasures which were inside Al-Kaaba.
Khuza’ah became the new leaders of Mecca. While the descendants of Ismael (as) by that time have already increased in number and branched out to spread all over Arabia. But there was one branch that was still in Mecca, that branch was the Quraish. Quraish are one of many different tribes who descended from Ismael (as), they are called the descendants of Adnan. That meant Quraish were still living in Mecca while Mecca was ruled by Khuza’ah. The leader of Khuza’ah, one of their leader is Amr ibn Luhay al Khuza’ah. More about his story later on when we touch upon the religious background of Arabia. For now we want to stick to the lineage of Rasul’Allah (saw). The head of Quraish Qusai ibn Kilab was able to unify Quraish to lead a revolt against Khuza’ah. He was able to drive them out completely from Mecca. By now finally a descendant of Ismail (as) combined the political and religious leadership of Mecca. Not only that but Qusai ibn Kilab consolidated all of the authorities of the different aspects of power in his hands. He controlled Al-Hijaba which was the guardianship of Al-Kaaba and that’s a very noble thing. He had controlled over the provision of water and food to the pilgrims which is a big deal. Providing food and drinks to the pilgrims is considered to be a great a honor because you are the one providing for the guests of Allah, in fact they used to fight over this. What this responsibility entailed is that all of the Arabs who had come for pilgrimage would be hosted by the people of Quraish. They would provide them with food throughout their stay in the season of Hajj. Again Qusai ibn Kilab was also responsible for that. He also had control over Al Nadwa and Al Nadwa was the assembly of Quraish, it was like their parliament. He also held control over al liwa; Liwa is the banner of war. In other words he was the one who had the power to declare war. These were the authorities that Qusai ibn Kilab had. To summarise this, basically he had every authority that existed in Mecca. Making him the the absolute ruler of Mecca.
They were split among his children
When Qusai ibn Kilab died, all these different aspects of authority were split among his children. Some of them were with Abd Manaf and some were with his other brothers. The grandson of Qusai is Amr, he ended up inheriting from his father of providing food and drinks to the pilgrims. Amr did something new in feeding al-haji (the pilgrims) rather than providing them with soup. In the past they would cook the meat in big containers and then they would feed the people soup because that way you could feed a larger number. What Amr did, he started crushing bread into the soup. He mixed bread with the soup which was an upgrade to their meals. Now rather than just having soup they were having soup with bread. For that reason he was nickname Hashim, because of the process of crushing the bread in Arabic is ‘Hashim’; when it crushed something it’s called Hashim. This was the great grandfather of Rasul’Allah (saw).